CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA (CML)
A slowly progressing disease in which too many white blood cells (not lymphocytes) are made in the bone marrow which is also called Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia is more common in adults than in children. This arises from abnormality in Blood Stem Cells resulting in proliferation of both mature and immature white blood cells as well as platelets.
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia was the first disease where the molecular abnormality leading to cancer was deciphered. A unique translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 results in formation of a protein which stimulates the enzyme Tyrosine Kinase leading to uncontrolled proliferation of white blood cells. This abnormality was called the PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME. The molecular basis for this was later established as the translocation of BCR gene to the ABL gene.
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